Thursday, March 12, 2020

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis Free Online Research Papers The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 brought the world close to a nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. The political positions adopted by both sides nearly prevented a resolution, but at the last moment, a compromise was found and nuclear war averted.Putting ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear weapons into Cuba salved the insecurities of two men. Although John F. Kennedy had claimed that the U.S. lagged behind the Soviet Union in nuclear capabilities when he campaigned for the presidency, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev knew otherwise. By the summer of 1962, Khrushchev also was certain that the Americans knew the same thing. Soviet missiles could reach Europe, but American missiles located in Turkey could strike almost anywhere in the Soviet Union. Khrushchev feared that the imbalance would tempt the U.S. to launch a first strike. Fidel Castro harbored his own concerns. He had already withstood the Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961 and President Kennedy made little effort to conceal his continued desire to see Castro deposed. Cuban intelligence had uncovered documents dating to April 1962 that described a plan to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro through Operation Mongoose, which ironically was scheduled for October 1962. Thus when Khrushchev proposed that the Soviet Union should install missiles in Cuba aimed at the U.S., Castro agreed. Construction of missile sites began in mid-July 1962. By August, increased shipping activity between the Soviet Union and Cuba had come to the attention of American intelligence. On August 10, John McCone, director of the CIA, told Kennedy that, in his opinion, the Soviets intended to install medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBMs) in Cuba. On August 29, a U-2 spy plane on reconnaissance over Cuba brought back evidence that surface-to-air (SAM) missiles had been installed at locations in Cuba. While not themselves offensive weapons, their installation indicated Cuba’s strong desire to defend those locations. Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin advised Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, who was one of President Kennedys closest advisors, that the installations were entirely defensive in nature. But in fact, MRBMs began to arrive 11 days later. Continued reports of Soviet missiles in Cuba prompted the decision to send another U-2 to take a closer look on October 9. Bad weather delayed the flight until October 14. The photographic evidence was analyzed and in addition to the SAMs, six larger missiles, 60 to 65 feet in length, were identified. It was clear to analysts on the 15th that those missiles were likely to have nuclear capability. Kennedy was informed of the situation during his breakfast on the 16th. He quickly convened the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EX-COMM). That hand-picked group of 12 men would advise Kennedy throughout the unfolding crisis. They included Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, CIA Director John McCone, Secretary of the Treasury Douglas Dillon, National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy, Presidential Counsel Ted Sorenson, Undersecretary of State George Ball, Deputy Undersecretary of State U. Alexis Johnson, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Maxwell Taylor, Assistant Secretary of State for Latin America Edward Martin, Adviser on Russian Affairs Llewellyn Thompson, Deputy Secretary of Defense Roswell Gilpatric, and Assistant Secretary of Defense Paul Nitze. Kennedy wanted to maintain complete secrecy. He did not want the Soviets to know how much he knew and he also didnt want to panic the American public. So for the next four days, Kennedy maintained his announced schedule of public appearances. On the 17th, the president flew to Connecticut in support of Abraham Ribicoffs bid for a U.S. Senate seat. On the same day, another U-2 flight revealed the existence of intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) that would be able to strike nearly anywhere in the continental United States. On the 18th, Kennedy met with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. The missiles were not directly brought into the discussions by either side. Gromyko again denied that the Soviet Union was doing anything in Cuba except assisting in that countrys defense. Kennedy re-read his statement from September 4, in which he had said that offensive weapons in Cuba would not be tolerated. That evening, Kennedy received a recommendation from EX-COMM to blockade Cuba rather than launch a military strike. Kennedy agreed, but instructed his speechwriter, Theodore Sorenson, to prepare two speeches: One would announce the blockade and the other an invasion. Kennedy continued to appear in public as though nothing were happening. On the 19th, he flew to the Midwest for a series of campaign appearances. Meanwhile, back in Washington, his brother Robert continued intense discussions with EX-COMM. The Joint Chiefs of Staff wanted to exercise the military option, but consens Research Papers on The Cuban Missile CrisisAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2Twilight of the UAWQuebec and CanadaOpen Architechture a white paperNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenWhere Wild and West MeetGenetic Engineering

Monday, February 24, 2020

The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander - Essay Example Michelle Alexander has spoken on various events regarding the wrong judgmental basis when it comes to races in United States. The author of the most read book The New Jim Crow explains that the incarceration is itself a negative event in the history of America to which majority of the Americans also poses criticism (Alexander, 2013). The mass incarceration led into a major racial discrimination problem in United States. The mass imprisonment of a great deal of African Americans after the civil rights movement has proven that the policies of United States in terms of justice system remained weaker. Mass incarceration remains an issue in the present times as well. The ratio of mass incarceration seems to increase in the present times (Alexander, 2013). Talking about the impact that mass incarceration on the society as a general, it is considered that poor classes of the society are affected in terms of economic opportunities. It is the mind-set that has been set by the justice system because of which people are not able to trust minorities and especially African Americans. For instance, it is expected that mass incarceration will reduce the wages of the inmates. For people like them, it is expected that they will take a lot of years down the pipeline to evolve as middle class families (Alexander, 2013). Psychologically, people believed that white men with a criminal record can still be given different job opportunities while African Americans with a same record is completely denied of the jobs that they opt for. This is an open racial discrimination to which the authorities lack stance. It is expected that the future generations of the African Americans will be growing up with the rebellious attitude towards the white population which can prove to be very damaging for American society (Alexander, 2013). However, many claims that this aspect is quiet similar in other countries of the world such as Europe where every second African

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Philosophy - Essay Example Therefore, we are certainly not planning to take the legislation lying down. There are also those who will manage to pay the extra tuition fee one way or the other, and will not be forced to leave college. But they too realize that this increase will result in wastage of talent and violation of merit. It will also reduce opportunities for young people and promote economic inequality in a society which is already haunted by its ill-effects (such as unsettling urban crime rates). Protests can be very effective as they can demonstrate clearly to lawmakers the unpopularity of certain legislation. They can perchance sway them, and force them to reconsider their allegiances. Protests and acts of civil disobedience are sure to swiftly put the issue in media spotlight, which will get it the attention that it deserves. Protests can provide an effective means of mobilizing public opinion for a particular cause, and can help earn support from a wide range of people. Nonviolent protests and acts of civil disobedience have been carried out for worthy causes in the past. I intend to participate in such activities to make myself heard, and draw attention to this pressing concern. Part 2 The realm of ethics (not unlike other branches of knowledge) is fraught with conundrums and complications. But ethical decision-making is a necessity.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Speech Coaching Essay Example for Free

Speech Coaching Essay Problem Definition Communication, particularly oral communication is an essential skill, maybe more now than ever. With all of the electronic communication, good oral communication should stand out. Justification for Problem Definition Communication skills simply do not refer to the way in which we communicate with another person. It encompasses many other things the way in which we respond to the person we are speaking, body gestures including the facial ones, pitch and tone of our voice and a lot of other things. And the importance of communication skills is not just limited to the management world, since effective communication skills are now required in each and every aspect of our life. We can measure the importance of communication skills in the business sector when we take a look at job advertisements. There is little chance that you will come across an advertisement which does not mention that candidates should have good communication skills. List of Alternative course of action . Hiring a speech consultant. 2. Onsite communication and speech training. 3. Online or remote communication and speech training. Evaluate Alternatives 1. Conduct in house training sessions. First we have to hire employees with high effective communication skills, with this the amount of investment in the communication training should be minimized, then to conduct a periodic and regular in-house sessions and workshops to develop and enhance their communication skills. . Communication training for all employees. Communication training will help business to grow, essential communication skills training is required to be provided to all employees, but more advanced levels of training should be provided to front liners and executives, as effective communication skills are important for business continuity and growth. The company will invest a lot in this training but most probably will gain the benefits of this investment. 3. Communication training for leaders and front liners. Provide top notch communication skills training for company’s leaders, who are expected to train and mentor their subordinates on how to communicate effectively. Providing this kind of training to front liners will help improving business and grow sales figures. Conclusion Recommendations First and third solutions are recommended to be conducted along with each other’s to help have better communication across the company and with external parties.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Another One Bites The Dust :: essays research papers

Another One Bites the â€Å"Dust† Sweet Diamond Dust, written by Rosario Ferre, focuses on modernization and how it’s impacted the country of Puerto Rico and it’s people. This book discusses the struggles and hardships of managing sugar mills and the influential changes the Americans brought to Puerto Rico in the early 1900’s. The Americans triumph over the local landowners and their sugar mills, was not all from their own doings. Their successes is in part of the town’s own greed. Through manipulation, persuasion, and cunnings, Diamond Dust was able to survive through the toughest of hardships, and still manage to be the only competitor (in Puerto Rico) to the northerners. With Diamond Dust’s success also came a price, and with the very same methods that brought the mill to its climax, also made it fall to its knees, through greed. In the beginning there was much talk of how proud the people of Puerto Rico were of their country, â€Å"Built on the gently rolling slopes that descend form Mount Guamani, it looks upon a savannah of fabulously fertile loam, whose sabled, furrowed topsoil is considered to be one of the richest in the world.† (3-4) But as the book progresses, it begins to reveal its true side. The town of Guamani was not as peaceful and giving as it is told to be. The writer tends to discuss how the Americans arrival has changed the town for the worse. â€Å" Far from being a paradise, Guamani has become a hell, a monstrous whirlpool from which the terrifying funnel of Snow White Sugar Mills spews out sugar night and day toward the north.† (7) Many Puerto Ricans of lower stature or less well of than the rich, truly believed the northerners were saviors who helped modernize a town in need of relief:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   All this was done away with when the foreigners came: they established modern methods of reaping and planting; the field hands were treated like human beings instead of like slaves; their children could go to school; they were given adequate housing and shoes†¦ In other words, the northerners were a blessing to the poor and to the middle class as well, albeit to the rich. (68) Diamond Dust faced many hardships that could have easily wiped it out of business, but thanks to the devotion and patience spent managing the land, it overcame many close turnovers. Between Don

Monday, January 13, 2020

Ready to Eat Food

NEW ERA OF INDIAN READY TO EAT FOOD (RETORT FOOD – Having shelf life up to 18 months) Sanjeev Bhanga BRIEF India has made lot of progress in agriculture & food sectors since independence in terms of growth in output, yields and processing. It has gone through a green revolution, a white revolution, a yellow revolution and a blue revolution. Today, India is the largest producer of milk, fruits, cashew nuts, coconuts and tea in the world, the second largest producer of wheat, vegetables, sugar and fish and the third largest producer of tobacco and rice. Now the time is to provide better food processing & its marketing infrastructure for Indian industries to serve good quality & safest processed food like ready to eat food. It is opening a new window in world scenario as far as taste & acceptance is concerned. Therefore, Indian Government is providing more infrastructure for this sector. Excise duty is now ZERO % on RTE and 100 % tax deduction for the first 10 years for new units. This allows manufactures to bring down their prices & spreads its flavors to the world. The retort processed foods do not require rehydration or cooking and can be consumed straight from the pouch with or without pre-warming, depending upon the requirement of the users and the weather conditions. These foods meet the specific needs of convenience, nutritional adequacy, shelf stability, storage, distribution to the centers and have become very popular after the Year 2002. Some of the mouth-watering dishes in retort pouches include sooji halwa, upma, chicken curry, mutton curry, fish curry, chicken madras, chicken kurma, rajma masala, palak paneer, dal makhnil, mutter paneer, potato-peas, mutter mushroom, vegetable ulav chicken pulav, and mutton pulav, etc. The pioneer introduction of retorting technology has made the sale of ‘Ready-to-Eat’ food products commercially viable with great taste. CONCEPT †¢ Ready to Eat Meals like already cooked or prepared lunch & dinner are relatively new products which came in market only a few years back and are now sold through retail general stores in especially made sealed aluminum laminates. †¢ The retorting or sterilization process ensures the stability of the Ready-to-Eat foods in retort pouches, on the shelf and at room temperature. The application of sterilization technology completely destroys all potentially harmful micro-organisms, thereby making sure that the food product has a very long shelf life of over 12 months and needed no refrigeration. †¢ When customer needs to eat, the food item pouch is either put in microwave oven to warm it or keep in heated water for a few minutes and then serve to eat. †¢ Such ready to eat meals have been especially given to soldiers in army of many countries who require carrying their rations while on war front or while located far away from their main unit. The advertisements like, â€Å"Hungry Kyaa† are adding zest to the market by popularizing such food items which are precooked and free from any preservative, and yet have a long shelf life of over 12-months. These food items are normally selling in pouches, well packed in cardboard printed boxes of small book size and carry about 300 grams of cooked food at a price of about Rs. 40 to 200 in foreign marke t depending upon the type of dish packed. One packet of vegetable dish is normally sufficient for one meal for three persons and therefore falls in economic zone of consumer’s preferences. WHY READY TO EAT FOOD Globalization of Indian food and its culture are the core factors for popularization of ready to eat foods. Main motivation for these ready to eat foods is fast growing foreign market. Retail outlet culture is now growing rapidly in India. Shelf life of these foods are at least 12-18 months. Quality, Taste and Flavor of these foods remains as good as fresh up to the expiry date. Women wanting to spend more time out of the kitchen. More working bachelors staying away from homes. Cost effective in comparison to the Indian cuisine served by the restaurants in foreign countries. TYPES OF READY TO EAT FOOD Veg Food Alloo Matar Palak paneer Sarso Ka Saag Chana Masala Kadi Pakora Cheese Tomato Dal Makhani Rajma Masala Non Veg Food Chicken Curry Butter Chicken Karahi Chicken Mughalai Chicken Mutton Masala Mutton Korma Karahi Mutton Mutton Biryani Deserts Gajar Ka Haluaa / Sugi Ka Haluaa / Milk Kheer PLAYERS IN READY TO EAT FOOD MTR Kohinoor Foods ITC Haldiram Tasty Bites RETORT & ITS PACKAGING The water RETORT is an equipment or vessel or sterilization module through which steam (at 130 degree centigrade for 25 minutes) is applied on food products packed in retort pouches. The retorts use water or steam/air combination as processing medium to heat the container/packages. Compressed air or additional steam is introduced during the processing cycle to provide the overpressure (any pressure supplied to the retort in excess of that which can be normally achieved under steam at any given retort temperature). Overpressure is important in preventing package damage or loss of seal integrity (like bursting), during the heating process. Retort pouches is a flexible packaging material that basically consist of laminates or bounded layers of different packaging films of Polyster-Nylon-Aluminium-polypropylene that can withstand high process temperature & pressure. Their most important feature is that they are made of heatresistant plastics unlike the usual flexible pouches. This makes the retort pouches unique which are suitable for the processing of food contents at temperatures around 120 degrees Celsius. That is the kind of ambient temperature prevalent in the thermal sterilization of foods. There is lesser time to spend in cooking food themselves and so ready to eat foods are preferred. To get the food of different cultures, taste etc, it is important that food has good shelf life so that it can be made available at far off places too and then can be conveniently consumed also. ADVANTAGES OF RETORT PACKAGING †¢ Pouch laminates permits less chance to overcook during the retorting thus products having better color, texture & less nutrients loss. †¢ It requires less energy for sterilization. †¢ It requires less disposal & storage space. †¢ Low oxygen & moisture permeability. Shelf stable for longer time & requires no refrigeration. †¢ Sun light barrier, light weight, easy to open. MARKET & ITS GROWTH The popularity of ready to eat packed food now is no longer marks a special occasion. Peoples want value for time, money in terms of quality and variety. The food processing industry is one of the largest industries in India and it is the ranked fifth in terms of Production, Consumption, Export & Expected growth. Processed food market in India accounts for 32% that is Rs. 1280 billion or 29. 4 billion US $ in a total estimated market of Rs. 990 billion or 91. 66 US $. Euromonitor International, a market research company says that amount of money Indian spend on ready to eat snacks & food is 5 billion US $ in a year while on abroad Indian or Indian subcontinents spend 30 billion US $ in a year. Ready to eat packaged food industry is over Rs. 4000 crore or 1 billion US $ and it is growing at the rate of 20 % per annum. Ready to eat food market is developing specifically in UK, USA, Canada, Gulf & South Asian Countries with the growth rate of over 150 % per annum. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What is retort packaging? Retort packaging is a self stable flexible package What is the shelf life of retort food? – The shelf life of a retort package is a year plus. What are the shipping advantages? – A retort package will not b reak or dent and weigh less. Where do you display the package in the retail store? – You can display at room temperature at any corner of the retail store What are some of the main reasons, a packager of consumer products would like to go from a conventional package material to a flexible retort pouch? – The package provides a flat surface for graphics and text, needs no refrigeration and is microwave compatible. What's the difference between foil and non-foil retort structures? – Non-foil retort packaging can be put in the micro wave. What about taste of products in a retort package? – People say that products packaged with retort material taste fresher and maintain a more natural flavor. What about shelf appeal? – Retort pouches are more space efficient and provide a larger surface for graphics and text. What kind of food products can be packed in retort packaging ? – All kind of veg & Non- veg food products Email: [email  protected] com

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Personal Narrative My Vampire Speed - 838 Words

I used my vampire speed to quickly get dressed. I braided my hair as quickly as I could without messing it up, and turned around to see Bailey sitting in the same position he was when I came in my room. â€Å"Liar.† I said to him. â€Å"What?† he said innocently. â€Å"You promised you wouldn’t look.† He stood up, walked over to me, and pulled me close to him. â€Å"I just can’t resist you.† I smacked him, not so hard, in the head. â€Å"So, you’re even more of a liar? Quit lying!† â€Å"Honestly! I just can’t.† he said with puppy dog eyes. I smiled and kissed him. â€Å"I can’t resist those eyes.† â€Å"That tends to happen once in awhile.† he smiled. â€Å"We have to go. It’s seven forty.† â€Å"We have time. All the time in the world.† â€Å"No, we don’t.† I said, running†¦show more content†¦Bailey slid his hand from my knee to my upper thigh. I grabbed his hand and pushed it away. â€Å"Stop!† I said with a smile. Everytime he touched me, it felt like he was touching every nerve on my body, like he had sent lightning all over my body. â€Å"You know you like it.† he whispered, but I had heard it loud and clear. I didn’t answer, but I smiled. He smiled. â€Å"Yep. I’m always right.† About ten minutes before the bell rang, Bailey said â€Å"Hey.† I looked at him. â€Å"What?† â€Å"You want to go on a date tonight?† he asked. I smiled. â€Å"Maybe.† â€Å"Maybe?† he repeated. â€Å"It depends on what the girls are doing.† â€Å"Why does it matter what they are doing?† â€Å"If they re all staying home, then I want to stay home and hang with them.† â€Å"Alright.† Bailey said. â€Å"Just text me and I’ll be ready.† He grabbed my hand. I smiled. Chapter 4: Girl Time I got home from school and went to look for my friends. I ran upstairs and check each of their rooms. No one was home except for our four dogs. My dog was Tater, he was the biggest in the house, a big yellow labrador. Then, there was Nicolle’s black and white french pug, Rosie. Then, Emily’s brown chihuahua, Baby. And last, Jade’s black mini-poodle , Zerno. Each dog knew who their owner was. They were loyal and kind. I sat in my room against my bed, petting Tater. I heard the door open and I ran down stairs. I saw Nicolle and Emily in the front door. â€Å"Hey!† I said. â€Å"Hi.† they said back. â€Å"Are you guys staying in tonight?† â€Å"Yes.†